Creating Your First Tizen Mobile Web Application

Welcome to Tizen mobile Web application development!

A mobile Web application is basically a Web site stored on a mobile device. You can create it using Web-native languages, such as HTML5, CSS, and JavaScript.

Study the following instructions to help familiarize yourself with the Tizen Web application development process as well as using the Tizen Studio and installing the created application on the emulator or target device. With the instructions, you can create and run a basic mobile Web application, which displays some text on the screen and changes the text when the user clicks it:

  1. Before you get started with developing Tizen applications, download and install the Tizen Studio.

    For more information on the installation process, see the installation guide.

  2. Create a mobile Web project using the Tizen Studio.

    This step shows how you can use a predesigned project template that creates all the basic files and folders required for your project.

  3. Build the application.

    After you have implemented code for the features you want, this step shows how you can build the application to validate and compile the code.

  4. Run the application.

    This step shows how you can run the application on the emulator, simulator, or a real target device.

  5. Design a UI.

    This step shows how you can create the application UI and make small alterations to it to improve the usability of your application.

When you are developing a more complex application, you can take advantage of the Web tools included in the Tizen Studio to ease the tasks of creating functionality and designing the application UI.

Creating a Project

The following example shows you how to create and configure a basic mobile Web application project in the Tizen Studio. An application project contains all the files that make up an application.

The following figure illustrates the application to be created:

  • On the left, the figure shows the application screen when the application starts. The screen displays the Basic text.

  • On the right, the figure shows the application screen after you tap the text. The screen now displays the Tizen text. Tapping the text area switches between the 2 texts.

Figure: Mobile Web Basic application

Mobile Web Basic application Mobile Web Basic application

To create the application project:

  1. Launch the Tizen Studio.

  2. Make sure the Web perspective is selected in the upper-right corner of the Tizen Studio window.

    Checking the perspective

    If not, select it. If the perspective is not visible, in the Tizen Studio menu, select Window > Perspective > Open Perspective > Other > Web, and click OK.

  3. In the Tizen Studio menu, select File > New > Tizen Project.

    Creating a new Tizen Web project

    The Project Wizard opens.

  4. In the Project Wizard, define the project details.

    The Project Wizard is used to create the basic application skeleton with the required folder structure and mandatory files. You can easily create different applications by selecting an applicable template or sample for the Project Wizard to use.

    1. Select the Template project type and click Next.

      Selecting the project type

    2. Select the profile (Mobile) and version from a drop-down list and click Next.

      The version depends on the platform version you have installed and with which you are developing the application.

      Selecting the profile and version

    3. Select the Web Application application type and click Next.

      Selecting the application type

    4. Select the Basic UI template and click Next.

      Selecting the template

    5. Define the project properties and click Finish.

      You can enter the project name (3-50 characters) and the unique package ID. You can also select the location and working sets by clicking More properties.

      Defining properties

      The Project Wizard sets up the project, creates the application files using the default content from the template, and closes. For more information on the Project Wizard and the available templates, see Creating Tizen Projects with Tizen Project Wizard.

You can see the created project in the Project Explorer view. The most important files and folders include:

  • css: Folder for CSS files used by the application to style its content

  • js: Folder for JavaScript files used by the application to implement its functional logic

  • config.xml: Application configuration file used by the platform to install and launch the application

  • icon.png: Application icon file used by the platform to represent the application

  • index.html: Main HTML file for the layout of the application screen

Figure: Application in the Project Explorer

Application in the Project Explorer

NoteYou can view and modify the application configuration in the Web application configuration editor. In this example, no configuration changes are required.

Your application project is now ready for further actions. Next, build the application.

Managing the Application Configuration

To view and modify the application configuration:

  1. In the Project Explorer view, double-click the config.xml file of the application. The Tizen Studio opens the file in the Web application configuration editor.
  2. In the configuration editor, view and modify the configuration details using the various tabs:

    Configuring the application

    • Overview: Define general information, such as the name and icon of the application.

    • Features: Define required software and hardware features. This information is used for application filtering in the Tizen Store.

    • Privileges: Define the security-sensitive APIs or API groups accessed and used by the application.

    • Localization: Define localized values for the application name, description, and license.

    • Policy: Request network resource permissions to access external network resources.

    • Preferences: Define name-value pairs that can be set or retrieved through the application.

    • Tizen: Edit the Tizen schema extension properties of the application.

    • Source: View and edit the source code of the config.xml file. Changes made and saved on the other tabs are reflected in the source code and vice versa.
      NoteThe config.xml file must conform to both the XML file format and the W3C specification requirements. Editing the file in the Source tab is intended for advanced users only.
  3. To save any changes, in the Tizen Studio menu, select File > Save All.

For more information on configuring the application, see Setting the Web Application Configuration.

Building Your Application

After you have created the application project, you can implement the required features. In this example, only the default features from the project template are used, and no code changes are required.

When your application code is ready, you must build the application. The building process performs a validation check and compiles your JavaScript and CSS files.

You can build the application in the following ways:

  • Automatically

    The automatic build means that the Tizen Studio automatically rebuilds the application whenever you change a source or resource file and save the application project.

    To use the automatic build:

    1. Select the project in the Project Explorer view.
    2. In the Tizen Studio menu, select Project > Build Automatically.

      Using the automatic build

      A check mark appears next to the menu option.

    You can toggle the automatic build on and off by reselecting Project > Build Automatically.

  • Manually

    The manual build means that you determine yourself when the application is built.

    To manually build the application, right-click the project in the Project Explorer view and select Build Project.

    Figure: Manually building the application

    Manually building the application

    Alternatively, you can also select the project in the Project Explorer view and do one of the following:

    • In the Tizen Studio menu, select Project > Build Project.
    • Press the F10 key.

After you have built the application, run it.

Running Your Application

You can run the Web application on the emulator, Web Simulator, or a real target device.

Running on the Emulator

To run the application on the emulator:

  1. Launch an emulator instance in the Emulator Manager:
    1. In the Tizen Studio menu, select Tools > Emulator Manager.

      Emulator Manager

    2. In the Emulator Manager, select a mobile emulator from the list and click Launch.

      If no applicable emulator instance exists, create a new one.

      Launching the emulator

      The emulator is launched in its own window. You can also see the new emulator instance and its folder structure in the Device Manager.

      Emulator

  2. Generate a security profile.

    Before you run the application, you must sign your application package with a certificate profile in the Tizen Studio.

  3. Run the application:
    1. In the Project Explorer view, right-click the project and select Run As > Tizen Web Application.

      Running the application

      Alternatively, you can also select the project in the Project Explorer view and do one of the following:

      • Press the Ctrl + F11 key.
      • Click the run icon in the toolbar.

      If you have created multiple emulator instances, select the instance you want from the combo box in the toolbar before selecting to run the application. If you select an offline emulator, it is automatically launched when you select to run the application.

      Selecting the emulator to use

    2. Confirm that the application launches on the emulator.

      Application running in the emulator

      NoteIf the emulator display has switched off, you cannot see the application launch. To see the application on the emulator screen:
      1. To switch the display on, in the key window next to the emulator screen, click Power.
      2. On the home screen, swipe left.

      While the application is running, the Log view in the Tizen Studio shows the log, debug, and exception messages from the methods defined in the log macros. To see the view, in the Tizen Studio menu, go to Window > Show View > Log.

For more information on using the emulator features, see Using Emulator Control Keys, Menu, and Panel and Using Extended Emulator Features.

Running on the Web Simulator

To run the application on the Web Simulator:

  1. In the Project Explorer view, right-click the project and select Run As > Tizen Web Simulator Application.

    Running the application

    Alternatively, you can also select the project in the Project Explorer view and click the run icon in the toolbar.

  2. Confirm that the application launches on the Web Simulator.

    Application running in the Web Simulator

For more information on using the Web Simulator features, see Taking Advantage of Web Simulator Features.

Running on a Target Device

To run the application on a target device:

  1. Connect the mobile target device to your computer using a USB cable.
  2. Generate an author certificate.

    Before you run the application, you must sign your application package with a certificate profile in the Tizen Studio.

  3. Run the application:
    1. In the Device Manager, select the device.
    2. In Project Explorer view, right-click the project and select Run As > Tizen Web Application.

      Running the application on a target device

      Alternatively, you can also select the project in the Project Explorer view and do one of the following:

      • Press the Ctrl + F11 key.
      • Click the run icon in the toolbar.

      If you have both a connected device and existing emulator instances, select the device from the combo box in the toolbar before selecting to run the application.

      Selecting the device to use

    3. Confirm that the application launches on the target device.
    NoteThe application is launched using the default debug run configuration. To create and use another configuration:
    1. In the Project Explorer view, right-click the project and select Run As > Run Configurations.
    2. In the Run Configurations window, click the New Launch Configuration icon (New Launch Configuration icon), define the configuration details, and launch the application by clicking Run.

      Run Configurations window

Designing a Simple UI

The mobile application created with the Basic UI template has a simple user interface with a text component showing the Basic text in the middle of the screen.

The UI is created using W3C/HTML. The W3C specifications provide HTML and CSS features for creating a user interface. With HTML, you can define the structure of the application screens, while CSS allows you to define the look and feel of the screens.

Figure: User interface in the Basic UI template

User interface in the Basic template

Creating the Basic UI

The UI in the Basic UI template uses the HTML DOM, which is a structured model to control Web elements. It is an official W3C standard to express the document regardless of platforms or languages, and the foundation of the HTML5 APIs. The template contains the following components:

  • The <html> element is the top-level element of the HTML DOM tree that wraps the entire document, and it has the <head> and <body> elements as child nodes:

    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
       <head>
          <!--Content-->
       </head>
       <body>
          <!--Content-->
       </body>
    </html>
    
  • The <head> element contains the information that the browser refers to when rendering the body element to interpret information, such as the title of the HTML document, and the location of the related CSS and JavaScript files:

    • <title>: Defines the title of the document.
    • <meta>: Defines information, such as encoding, creator, and keywords of the document.
    • <style>, <link>: Sets the styles of the document.
    • <script>, <noscript>: Adds functions to the document.
    <head>
       <meta charset="utf-8"/>
       <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0, maximum-scale=1.0">
       <meta name="description" content="Tizen Mobile Web Basic Template"/>
    
       <title>Tizen Mobile Web Basic Application</title>
    
       <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/style.css"/>
       <script src="js/main.js"></script>
    </head>
    
  • The <body> element defines the area displaying content on the browser screen. In this case, it defines the Basic text component:

    <body>
       <div id="main" class="page">
          <div class="contents">
             <span id="content-text">Basic</span>
          </div>
       </div>
    </body>
    

Modifying Existing Components with CSS

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) specifies the layout and styling of the Web application.

There are various ways to connect CSS with HTML:

  • style attribute in an HTML element
  • <link> element in the <head> element
  • @import attribute in the CSS area
  • <style> element in the <head> element

Applying the style of an HTML element directly with the style attribute has the highest priority. On the other hand, creating a separate CSS file and managing it separately is convenient when it comes to applying changes in the future.

In the Basic UI template, the CSS file is connected to the HTML file using a <link> element in the <head> element:

<head>
   <meta charset="utf-8"/>
   <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0, maximum-scale=1.0">
   <meta name="description" content="Tizen Mobile Web Basic Template"/>

   <title>Tizen Mobile Web Basic Application</title>

   <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/style.css"/>
   <script src="js/main.js"></script>
</head>

The following lines in the CSS code describe the styling of the text in an element with the content-text ID:

  • css/style.css:
    #content-text {
       font-weight: bold;
       font-size: 5em;
    }
    
  • index.html:
    <body>
       <div id="main" class="page">
          <div class="contents">
             <span id="content-text">Basic</span>
          </div>
       </div>
    </body>
    

By default, the text uses the #ffffff color (white), defined for the <body> element. If you change the CSS code and add a separate color for the content-text ID, the text color changes (in this case, to #ff0000 red):

#content-text {
   font-weight: bold;
   font-size: 5em;
   color: #ff0000;
}

Figure: Screen with a new text color

Screen with a new text color

Adding More Components and Functionality with TAU

TAU (Tizen Advanced UI) is a Web UI library that enables you to create and manage various kinds of UI components. The components represent a visual UI element, such as a button, checkbox, or list view. You can manipulate and interact with the application screens through the UI components. For more information, see Tizen Advanced UI and Tizen Advanced UI framework Reference.

TAU helps you to create Tizen Web applications easily. The following figure shows the role of TAU and its relation to the Web application.

Figure: TAU and the Web application

TAU and the Web application

The UI in the Basic UI template only contains one visible text component. To create a more elaborate UI with more components, screens, and functionality, use the TAU library in your application. The following example shows how to create a list and a footer button on a page (screen), create a second page, and move between the pages.

To create a Web application and design its UI with TAU:

  1. Install TAU templates.

    The Tizen Studio comes with the Package Manager tool, which you can use to install the TAU packages required for TAU application development.

    Make sure that you have the TAU (IDE) package installed to enable you to create the Web application using a TAU template.

    TAU package installation

  2. Create a project that uses the TAU library.

    To create a project with a TAU SinglePage template:

    1. Go to File > New > Tizen Project.
    2. Select Template > Mobile v4.0 > Web Application > TAU SinglePage.

      Creating a new project

    3. Define the project properties and click Finish.

      Changing properties

    4. In the Project Explorer view, view the project.

      The TAU library is located in the lib folder.

      TAU library directory

    You can create a new project using a TAU template or a TAU sample application included in the Tizen Studio, as shown above, or you can add the required TAU libraries to any existing Web project.

    To import TAU manually to an existing project to load the basic Tizen Advanced UI (TAU) libraries, use the following elements in your HTML file:

    • Import the TAU library with the <script> element: tau(.min).js

      This element is mandatory, since you need the TAU library to use the TAU JavaScript Interface.

    • Import the TAU theme with the <link> element: tau(.min).css

      This element is also mandatory.

    For better performance, all CSS files must be included in the header and all script elements must be put before the closing </body> element. The following example shows the TAU SinglePage template where the application title has been modified:

    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
       <head>
          <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, user-scalable=no"/>
          <link rel="stylesheet" href=".lib/tau/mobile/theme/default/tau.css"/>
          <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/style.css"/>
          <title>Hello TAU</title>
       </head>
       <body>
          <!--HTML BODY CONTENT-->
          <script type="text/javascript" src="lib/tau/mobile/js/tau.js"></script>
          <script src="./js/main.js"></script>
       </body>
    </html>
    

    You can add additional <script src="<CUSTOM_LIBRARY_OR_JS_FILE>"> or <link rel="stylesheet" src="<CUSTOM_CSS>"> elements to include your own scripts and style sheets. However, place them after the default <script> elements, so that you can use any TAU APIs provided by the default libraries.

  3. Create the first page.
    1. Open the index.html file. By default, the <body> element of the HTML file contains 1 page (<div> element with the ui-page class) which contains a header (<div> element with the ui-header class) and a content section (<div> element with the ui-content class).

      <body>
         <div class="ui-page" id="main">
            <div class="ui-header">
               <h1>Single-page application </h1>
            </div><!-- /header -->
      
            <div class="ui-content">
               <p>This is a single page boilerplate template that you can copy to build your first Tizen Web UI Framework page.</p>
            </div><!-- /content -->
         </div><!-- /page -->
      
         <script type="text/javascript" src="./lib/tau/mobile/js/tau.js"></script>
         <script src="./js/main.js"></script>
      </body>
      

      To lay out the page, edit the contents of the header and content blocks, and add a footer with the ui-footer class:

      <div class="ui-page" id="main">
         <div class="ui-header" data-position="fixed">
            <h1>Hello World</h1>
         </div>
      
         <div class="ui-content">
            <p>This is content area</p>
         </div>
         <div class="ui-footer">
            <p>This is footer area</p>
         </div>
      </div>
      

      Hello World page

    2. You can add your own styles for the content and footer areas with defined id attributes:

      <body>
         <div class="ui-page" id="main">
            <div class="ui-header" data-position="fixed">
               <h1>Hello World</h1>
            </div>
      
            <div class="ui-content" id="contentArea">
               <p>This is content area</p>
            </div>
            <div class="ui-footer" id="footerArea">
               <p>This is footer area</p>
            </div>
         </div>
      
         <script type="text/javascript" src="./lib/tau/mobile/js/tau.js"></script>
         <script src="./js/main.js"></script>
      </body>
      

      In the style.css file, add CSS styles for the new id attributes:

      #contentArea {
         background-color: white;
      }
      #footerArea {
         background-color: blue;
      }
      

      The above new styles modify the screen to show a while background for the content area, and a blue one for the footer.

      Hello World page with custom styles

  4. Create more content for the first page:
    • Add a list.

      You can add a list with the TAU list view component using the <ul> element and the ui-listview class:

      • Create a basic static list by overwriting the page content in the index.html file with the following code:

        <body>
           <div class="ui-page" id="main">
              <div class="ui-header" data-position="fixed">
                 <h1>Hello TAU</h1>
              </div>
              <div class="ui-content">
                 <ul class="ui-listview">
                    <li class="ui-li-static">List Item1</li>
                    <li class="ui-li-static">List Item2</li>
                    <li class="ui-li-static">List Item3</li>
                    <li class="ui-li-static">List Item4</li>
                 </ul>
              </div>
           </div>
        
           <script type="text/javascript" src="./lib/tau/mobile/js/tau.js"></script>
           <script src="./js/main.js"></script>
        </body>
        

        TAU list

      • For a more advanced option, you can also create an anchor list view (whose items can be clicked to navigate to other pages or show a popup). The list items (<li> elements) differ from the basic list by having an additional <a> element in them:

        <div class="ui-page" id="main">
           <div class="ui-header" data-position="fixed">
              <h1>Hello TAU</h1>
           </div>
           <div class="ui-content">
              <ul class="ui-listview">
                 <li class="ui-li-anchor"><a href="#">Anchor List 1</a></li>
                 <li class="ui-li-anchor"><a href="#">Anchor List 2</a></li>
                 <li class="ui-li-anchor"><a href="#">Anchor List 3</a></li>
                 <li class="ui-li-anchor"><a href="#">Anchor List 4</a></li>
              </ul>
           </div>
        </div>
        

        TAU anchor list

    • Add a button in the footer.

      When implementing Tizen mobile Web applications, you can use the ui-footer class as a footer area. You can add 1 or 2 buttons to the footer area, by using the <button> elements.

      <div class="ui-page" id="main">
         <div class="ui-header" data-position="fixed">
            <h1>Hello TAU</h1>
         </div>
         <div class="ui-content">
            <!--Content area with a list-->
         </div>
         <div class="ui-footer">
            <button>OK</button>
         </div>
      </div>
      

      TAU button

  5. Create the second page.
    1. In the Tizen Studio, create a new HTML file and name it second.html.

      Add the following content to the file to create a title text in the header and a Hello Tizen! text in the content area:

      <!DOCTYPE html>
      <html>
         <head>
            <title>Hello TAU</title>
            <link rel="stylesheet" href="lib/tau/mobile/theme/default/tau.css">
         </head>
         <body>
            <div class="ui-page" id="second">
               <div class="ui-header" data-position="fixed">
                  <h1>Second Page</h1>
               </div>
               <div class="ui-content" id="secondPage">
                  <p>Hello Tizen!</p>
               </div>
            </div>
            <script type="text/javascript" src="lib/tau/mobile/js/tau.js" data-build-remove="false"></script>
         </body>
      </html>
      
    2. Decorate the page in the same way as index.html. In the style.css file, add the following CSS style to set the content area background to white:

      #secondPage {
         background-color: white;
      }
      

    Second page

  6. Create navigation between the pages.
    • To navigate from the first page to the second, in the anchor list in the index.html file, add the path to the second page in the <li><a href> element:

      <ul class="ui-listview">
         <li class="ui-li-anchor"><a href="second.html">Go to Second Page</a></li>
         <li class="ui-li-anchor"><a href="#">Anchor List 2</a></li>
         <li class="ui-li-anchor"><a href="#">Anchor List 3</a></li>
         <li class="ui-li-anchor"><a href="#">Anchor List 4</a></li>
      </ul>
      

      Run the application in the emulator, and click the Go to Second Page link to move from the index.html page to the second.html page.

      Move to the second page

    • To navigate from the second page back to the first, use the Back key.

      You can navigate from page to page with the <a href="PAGE_FILE_NAME"> elements, but you cannot go back. To enable the user to return to the first page, you must add some code in a JavaScript file.

      Create a new app.js JavaScript file:

      1. In the index.html file, add the <script src="app.js"></script> line before closing the </body> element:

        <body>
           <div class="ui-page" id="main">
              <div class="ui-header" data-position="fixed">
                 <h1>Hello TAU</h1>
              </div>
              <div class="ui-content">
                 <!--Content-->
              </div>
              <div class="ui-footer">
                 <button>OK</button>
              </div>
           </div>
           <script type="text/javascript" src="lib/tau/mobile/js/tau.js"></script>
           <script src="app.js"></script>
        </body>
        
      2. In the Project Explorer view, right-click the project and select New > JavaScript Source File.

        Create a new JavaScript file

      3. Enter the file name as app.js and click Finish.
      4. In the app.js file, all kinds of logic can be added to the application. In this case, add the code for returning to the previous page when the Back key is pressed:

        (function() {
            window.addEventListener('tizenhwkey', function(ev) {
                if (ev.keyName === 'back') {
                    var page = document.getElementsByClassName('ui-page-active')[0],
                        pageid = page ? page.id : '';
        
                    if (pageid !== 'main') {
                        window.history.back();
                    }
                }
            });
        }());
        
    • To exit the application.

      You can make your application exit by adding more lines to the app.js file.

      You have to consider the fact that when the user clicks the Back key, the application can only exit if it is showing the first page. If the second page is showing, the application must return to the first page.

      The following example shows how to handle the Back key input with page navigation and application exit. Similar code is included in the TAU SinglePage project template main.js file by default.

      (function() {
          window.addEventListener('tizenhwkey', function(ev) {
              if (ev.keyName === 'back') {
                  var page = document.getElementsByClassName('ui-page-active')[0],
                      pageid = page ? page.id : '';
      
                  if (pageid === 'main') {
                      try {
                          tizen.application.getCurrentApplication().exit();
                      } catch (ignore) {}
                  } else {
                      window.history.back();
                  }
              }
          });
      }());